Hate speech has no particular definition in international human rights; it is a complex term that can include a variety of forms and manifestations. According to the Council of Europe Committee of Ministers, hate speech covers all forms of expressions that spread, incite, promote or justify racial hatred, xenophobia, anti-Semitism or other forms of hatred based on intolerance.
With the development of new (online) media, varius new challanges are brought about.
Hate speech is present in both (so called) traditional and the new media. They take different forms and can be less or more obvious. Please check our resource page to learn more about the hate speech and bolow you can see how you can react when encounter hate speech.


Most social media networks have rules that ban hate speech, they are called Community standards on Facebook, Community guidelines on Instagram, and Twitter rules and policies include section on Hateful conduct policy.


In most countries, there are media regulatory bodies you can complain to in case of an unfair representation of different social groups or in case of hateful narratives.


In case you want to report hate speech in Albanian media the following resources can be taken in consideration:
Albanian Media Authority/ Council of Complaints to hand in complaints which will be subject of evaluation based on the Broadcasting Code. Amongst other principles that the Broadcasting Code pertains, specifically related to hate speech it is the principle number 1.5 that states “the audiovisual broadcastings must not incite hate, intolerance, discrimination or justify the violence amongst citizens.”
Albanian Media Council  by filling in and submitting the complaint form.
Commissioner for Protection Against Discrimination through vising their offices and  filling in online complaint submission form.
People’s Advocate/Ombudsman by filling in the complaint form available online on the official page. Additionally, you can track the progress of your complaint online.
Albanian Helsinki Committee by filling in the online complaint form.

Bosnia and Herzegovina

– In Bosnia and Herzegovina, hate speech in print and online media, and on social networks can be reported to the Press Council of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Press Council acts on the reports it receives, but as a self-regulatory body it cannot impose sanctions, but only make recommendations.
– Hate speech in the electronic media is reported to the Communications Regulatory Agency of Bosnia and Herzegovina, which considers each case and makes a decision on a possible sanction.
Since hate speech in Bosnia and Herzegovina is also regulated by criminal law, citizens can report hate speech to the police and prosecutors.


– If you notice a hate speech in radio or TV channels, submit a complaint in the Independent Media Commission (IMC), the regulatory body for audio-visual media in Kosovo. IMC applies legal sanctions for media that violate the Code of Ethicsarticle 5 on incitement to hatred.
– If you notice a hate speech in the print media, including online portals, submit a complaint in the Press Council of Kosovo, the self-regulatory body for print media. Press Council applies moral sanctions for media that violate the Code of Print Media, article III on incitement and hate speech.
The compliant can be submitted online by filling the form on the website or by sending an email to


Depending on the media, there are several addresses for reporting hate speech in Montenegro:
– Daily newspapers Dan and Vijesti, their portals, as well as Vijesti Television have special ombudsmen who consider petitions and complaints.
– Daily newspapers Pobjeda and Dnevne novine, public service broadcaster Radio and Television of Montenegro (RTCG), several local television and radio stations are members of the Media Self-Regulation Council . The Council is in charge of monitoring professional and ethical standards in journalism in Montenegro. Complaints regarding hate speech can be submitted to this body.
– RTCG also has a special Commission for Petitions and Complaints of Listeners and Viewers.
– Hate speech produced and promoted by electronic media may also be reported to the Agency for Electronic Media of Montenegro.

North Macedonia

There are several ways to report hate speech in traditional media in North Macedonia:
– Submit a complaint at the Council of Media Ethics of North Macedonia. The Council is a media self-regulatory body that applies moral sanctions on those who do not observe the professional standards and the Code of Journalists.
You can submit the complaints here under the Complaints field.
– Report hate speech at the Helsinki Committee for Human Rights through the online form.
– Report hate crimes (including cyber hate crimes) through the Red Button by the Ministry of Internal Affairs. Complaints are then followed up by the representatives of the local police stations or higher authorities.


In Serbia, there are several ways to report discriminatory and hateful media content:
– If you encounter hate speech in the print media, you can make a complaint to Press Council by filling in the complaint form or sending an email to or
– In case of a hate speech in electronic media, it falls under jurisdiction of the Regulatory Authority for Electronic Media. You can file an online complaint form.
– You can report hate speech on the Internet to the Special Prosecution Office for High Tech Crime of the Republic of Serbia by sending an e-mail with all details to  
– All forms of discrimination (including hate speech) can be reported to the Commissioner for Protection of Equality by filling the compaint form.